• The type of device matters—some are associated with worse student outcomes.
  • Geography matters—technology is associated with higher student outcomes in the United States than in other regions.
  • Who is using the technology matters—technology in the hands of teachers is associated with higher scores than technology in the hands of students.
  • Intensity matters—students who use technology intensely or not at all perform better than those with moderate use.
  • A school system’s current performance level matters—in lower-performing school systems, technology is associated with worse results.
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